An informal deadline until 1 October set the deadline for a UN INDC summary. About 148 parties made the cut. Another 48 countries responsible for 10% of global emissions have not yet submitted their INDCs. The Paris Agreement is an unusual mix of steep ambitions and few enforcement mechanisms. Every country in the world has committed to take steps to keep global temperature rise “well below” 2 degrees Celsius until 2100. This would require weaning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, controlling forest loss, overhauling food production and finding ways to suck greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. But to achieve this goal, countries have been allowed to present their own goals and plans on how to achieve them. It is too short with few concrete sanctions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a UN body established in 1988, regularly assesses the latest climate science and establishes consensus reports for countries.

The countries most affected by the effects of climate change will be low-lying nations, particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, and developing countries that do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature and precipitation. But prosperous nations like the United States are also increasingly vulnerable. In fact, millions of Americans – especially children, the elderly and the poor – are already suffering from the wrath of climate change. William Nordhaus of Yale University writes for foreign affairs and thinks about how to remedy the failure of the world`s climate efforts. Signed the Paris Agreement, but its climate promise does not appear in the INDC register. By quantifying the damage done to society by CO2 pollution, Trump sees America as an island apart – and we all know what climate change is doing to the islands. The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was extended until 2012. This year, at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, delegates agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (without some industrialized countries withdrawing). They also reaffirmed their commitment made at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, in 2011, to create a new global climate treaty by 2015 that would require all major emitters not included in the Kyoto Protocol, such as China, India and the United States, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.